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North of Trier lay the pagus Carasco, which included the monastery of Prüm and formed the ecclesiastical doyenné of Kilburg.The newly created kingdom covered a wide strip of land which stretched from the North Sea coast southwards to Italy, and included present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Germany west of the river Rhine, the French provinces of Alsace, Lorraine, Burgundy and Provence, Switzerland and parts of northern Italy, as well as the imperial cities of Aachen, Pavia and Rome. In the territory west of Trier, in what is now northern France, south-eastern Belgium and the grand-duchy of Luxembourg, lay the pagus Evodiensis around the town of Ivoy, now called Carignan, in north-east France, near the present-day border with the Belgian province of Luxembourg which corresponded with the doyennés of Ivoy and Juvigny, the pagus Arrelensis around the town of Arlon, the doyennés of Arlon and Longuyonand the pagus Methingowe later called pagus Mattensis, the doyennés of Mersch and Luxembourg, which Longnon suggests may formerly have been called the pagus Recensis. Lotharingia was an entirely artificial political creation and its name an artificial composition. These are all small counties, some of which were short-lived and whose boundaries are difficult to define precisely. The other important factor in the development of the duchies of both Upper and Lower Lotharingia was the gradual acquisition of temporal power and territory by archbishoprics of Köln and Trier, and the bishoprics of Cambrai, Liège, Metz, Toul, Utrecht and Verdun. In addition, many cases can be found where angeschaltet individual count is recorded in charters in more than one county at approximately the same time. In addition, there is the county of Ornois "Odornense" in the treaty for which several possible locations have been identified.


Single Events Koblenz Hure Hagen


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The development of the counties which made up the duchy of Upper Lotharingia is best considered by first reviewing the Carolingian pagi which predated the formation of the kingdom of Lotha ringia. East of Verdun was the city and county of Metz "civitatem Mettis…et comitatu Moslensi" in the treaty. In fact, the wording could equally be interpreted as indicating that his jurisdiction was limited to the area surrounding his castle, which happened to include the property in question. By categorising the Lotharingian counties geographically, one should not lose sight of the powerful authority of a handful of noble families which acquired territories scattered throughout the whole area of the ancient kingdom of Lotharingia and whose influence was paramount in the development of the territory and on the wider international political scene in western Europe. The pagus Scarponensis lay to the north of Toul, around the towns of Dieulouard and Pont-à-Mousson, and to the west was situated the pagus Bedensis different from the pagus of the same name in the diocesis of Trier. The other Upper Lotharingian counties situated in western German counties were Bliesgau "Blesitchowa" in the treaty in which the counties of Bliescastel and Hüneburg developed in the early 12th century, Lower Saargau "Sarachowa subterior" in the treaty also called the county of Waldervinga or Rizzigau, which developed into the county of Saarbrücken in the 12th century, Mayenfeld "Megenensium" in the treatyNiedgau "Nitachowa" in the treatyand Upper Saargau "Sarachowa superior" in the treaty. No named counts have been identified in the other Upper Lotharingian counties of Albensis "Albechowa" in the treatyBassigny "Basiniacum" in the treatyEmaus "Emaus" in the treatyPerthes "Portense" in the treatySalins "Scudingum" in the treatySermorens "Salmoringum" in the treatyand Varais "Warasch" in the treaty. The newly created kingdom covered a wide strip of land which stretched from the North Sea coast southwards to Italy, and included present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Germany west of the river Rhine, the French provinces of Alsace, Lorraine, Burgundy and Provence, Switzerland and parts of northern Italy, as well as the imperial cities of Aachen, Pavia and Rome. In addition, there is the county of Ornois "Odornense" in the treaty for which several possible locations have been identified. Onomastics is of some use in identifying possible connections, but the number of permutations through both male and female lines is generally too numerous to render precise identification anything other than speculative. Assignment of counts to these counties was in many cases of short duration, with many changes and exchanges of territories including between the Lower and Upper Lotharingian duchies which renders satisfactory reconstruction of the comital families extremely challenging.



Single Events Koblenz Hure Hagen


Single Events Koblenz Hure Hagen


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The development of the counties which made up the duchy of Upper Lotharingia is best considered by first reviewing the Carolingian pagi which predated the formation of the kingdom of Lotha ringia. South of these, also from east to west, were the pagus Albensis, the pagus Rosalinsis, and the pagus Salinensis. These are all small counties, some of which were short-lived and whose boundaries are difficult to define precisely. In addition, many cases can be found where an individual count is recorded in charters in more than one county at approximately the same time. For the rest of the 10th century, the Lotharingian question was a source of bitter dispute with the French kings who constantly attempted to invade Lotharingia to reassert control.


Single Events Koblenz Hure Hagen


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North-east of Trier lay the pagus Maginensis later Meginovelt or Meinfeld and the pagus Trigorius centred on the town of Boppart, but these two pagi lay to the east of the border of Lotharingia in the German province of Franconia. The largest part of Upper Lotharingia was located in what is now French territory. Onomastics is of some use in identifying possible connections, but the number of permutations through both male and female lines is generally too numerous to render precise identification anything other than speculative. The kingdom was divided between the sons of Emperor Lothaire after he abdicated inthe territory called Lotharingia then being restricted to present-day Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Germany west of the Rhine, the French provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, and Switzerland. The other important factor in the development of the duchies of both Upper and Lower Lotharingia was the gradual acquisition of temporal power and territory by archbishoprics of Köln and Trier, and the bishoprics of Cambrai, Liège, Metz, Toul, Utrecht and Verdun. In other words, the extent to which the "county" in early medieval times represented a coherent administrative unit with recognised jurisdictional and territorial boundaries.


Single Events Koblenz Hure Hagen



At the outset, it is more accurate to describe the new rulers as "associate" dukes who governed under the central authority of Bruno Duke of Lotharingia brother of the German king and also archbishop of Köln. The pagus Scarponensis lay to the north of Toul, around the towns of Dieulouard and Pont-à-Mousson, and to the west was situated the pagus Bedensis different from the pagus of the same name in the diocesis of Trier. However, the two Alsatian counties Sundgau and Nordgau do not appear to have been considered part of the duchy of Upper Lotharingia. The counties of Castres "Castricium" in the treatyDormois "Dulmense" in the treaty in which the county of Grandpré emerged in the early 11th century, Mouzon "Mosminse" in the treatyand Woevre "Wavrense" in which the counties of Chiny, Ivois previously the pagus Evodiensis and Longwy evolved, lay south of the present Belgian border, north and east of the French county of Champagne.


Single Events Koblenz Hure Hagen



The pagus Scarponensis lay to the north of Toul, around the towns of Dieulouard and Pont-à-Mousson, and to the west was situated the pagus Bedensis different from the pagus of the same name in the diocesis of Trier. The conclusion that a particular count "ruled" a particular county is based in many cases on a single phrase in a contemporary charter which asserts that a specific property was located for example "in pago Bedensi in comitatu Otthonis", in accordance with the generally used formulation. Other counts are referred to in contemporary primary source documentation without reference to their geographical counties, so cannot be categorised geographically: The counties of Castres "Castricium" in the treatyDormois "Dulmense" in the treaty in which the county of Grandpré emerged in the early 11th century, Mouzon "Mosminse" in the treatyand Woevre "Wavrense" in which the counties of Chiny, Ivois previously the pagus Evodiensis and Longwy evolved, lay south of the present Belgian border, north and east of the French county of Champagne. This resulted in the suppression of many previously autonomous and powerful counties for example Verdun in Upper Lotharingia and the splintering of the territories of others particularly those in Ripuarian western Germany.


Single Events Koblenz Hure Hagen



The other Upper Lotharingian counties situated in western German counties were Bliesgau "Blesitchowa" in the treaty in which the counties of Bliescastel and Hüneburg developed in the early 12th century, Lower Saargau "Sarachowa subterior" in the treaty also called the county of Waldervinga or Rizzigau, which developed into the county of Saarbrücken in the 12th century, Mayenfeld "Megenensium" in the treaty , Niedgau "Nitachowa" in the treaty , and Upper Saargau "Sarachowa superior" in the treaty. The treaty sets out an apparently exhaustive list of the administrative entities which were allocated to the brothers Ludwig II "der Deutsche" King of the East Franks and Charles II "le Chauve" King of the West Franks, cathedral towns, abbeys and counties. In other words, the extent to which the "county" in early medieval times represented a coherent administrative unit with recognised jurisdictional and territorial boundaries. According to Thietmar of Merseburg, Heinrich I King of Germany secured the release of King Charles from prison and in return was rewarded with "the right hand of St Denis and the entire kingdom of the Lotharingians" [2]. East of Verdun was the city and county of Metz "civitatem Mettis…et comitatu Moslensi" in the treaty. By categorising the Lotharingian counties geographically, one should not lose sight of the powerful authority of a handful of noble families which acquired territories scattered throughout the whole area of the ancient kingdom of Lotharingia and whose influence was paramount in the development of the territory and on the wider international political scene in western Europe. Another important question is whether the counts in these minor Upper Lotharingian counties were counts "of" the counties implying territorial exclusivity or counts "in" the counties which could involve some form of territorial division within each county. This suggests that calling the local divisions "counties", as if they constituted fully functioning administrative units under a single central authority, may misrepresent the situation. South-east of Nancy, around the town of Neufchâteau, lay the pagus Solecensis, as well as the pagus Suentensis later the county of Saintois , and the pagus Calmontensis Chaumont. South of Metz lay the counties of Charpeigne "Scarponinse" in the treaty in which the abbey of Gorze was located, Chaumont "Calmontis" in the treaty which included the towns of Epinal, Nancy and Lunéville where the counties of Brixey, Mortagne and Sorcy developed in the 11th century, Saintois "Suentisium" in the treaty in which the county of Vaudémont developed in the late 11th century, and Toul "Tullense aliud Odornense" in the treaty. These are all small counties, some of which were short-lived and whose boundaries are difficult to define precisely.


Single Events Koblenz Hure Hagen

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